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Native shield-bug egg parasitoid - Trissolcus oenone

By N A Martin (2018)

Classification

Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Hymenoptera
Superfamily:
Proctotrupoidea
Family:
Platygasteridae
Scientific Name:
Trissolcus oenone (Dodd, 1913)
  • Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
    Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
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Common Names

Native shield-bug egg parasitoid
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Synonyms

Telenomus oenone Dodd, 1913
Telenomus otho Dodd, 1914
Trissolcus otho (Dodd, 1914)
Telenomus obliteratus Dodd, 1914
Trissolcus obliteratus (Dodd, 1914)
Telenomus biproruli Girault, 1926
Trissolcus biproruli (Girault, 1926)
Telenomus wilsoni Dodd, 1930
Trissolcus wilsoni (Dodd, 1930)

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Biostatus and Distribution

The Native shield-bug egg parasitoid is found in Australia and New Zealand. In New Zealand, this native species parasitises the eggs of native and Australian shield bugs in the family Pentatomidae (Hemiptera). It is found in native ecosystems as well as parks and gardens.

Conservation status: A native parasitoid of the eggs of native and Australian shield bugs in native habitats and gardens and parks.

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Life Stages and Annual Cycle

In spring, adult female Native shield-bug egg parasitoids locate clusters of eggs of Shield bugs and Soldier bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). They lay an egg in each shield bug egg. The parasitised shield bug egg develops a black ring near the top. The wasp larva hatches and feeds on the developing bug, consuming all of it. When the wasp larva is full grown it pupates within the egg shell. When the adult is close to being fully developed, the upper half ot the shield bug egg darkens. When the adult wasp is fully developed, it sheds the pupal skin and when its body has hardened, it chews a hole in the top of the egg shell and emerges. There are several overlapping generations per year. They over-winter as mated females.

The adult wasps are black and have large heads and thorax (middle part of the body) and a relatively small abdomen. The dorsal (top) of the head and thorax are covered with punctures. The dark legs (3 pairs) and the antennae are tinged with small areas of reddish-brown. They have two pairs of wings that extend beyond the end of the abdomen.

The mated female can lay male and female eggs, but eggs laid by an unmated female only produce males.

Ron Cumber in his 1964 paper records his detailed observations on egg laying behaviour of the females of two Trissolcus species. When the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid is laying an egg, the wings of the female wasp are held vertically almost at right angles to the body and well away from the surface of the egg. After the wasp egg has been laid, the shield bug egg is marked by the tip of the ovipositor being wiped from side to side over the egg above the point of oviposition. This marking prevents the ovipositing wasp or another female wasp from laying an egg in the bug egg. However, it won’t prevent another species of egg parasitoid laying its egg in the shield bug egg.

  • Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
    Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
  • Three images of the underside of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the white setae (hairs on the underside of the abdomen of the adult on the right.
    Three images of the underside of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the white setae (hairs on the underside of the abdomen of the adult on the right.
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the egg with the hole made in its top. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the egg with the hole made in its top. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the dark coloured eggs are parasitized by a wasp, probably the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the dark coloured eggs are parasitized by a wasp, probably the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult wasp, Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), and exit hole in egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult wasp, Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), and exit hole in egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp has started making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp has started making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole and the left egg on the bottom row where an exit hole has been started. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole and the left egg on the bottom row where an exit hole has been started. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole and the left egg on the bottom row where an exit hole has been started. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the left egg in the middle row where an adult wasp is making its exit hole and the left egg on the bottom row where an exit hole has been started. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on top of the eggs after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the egg of a wasp coming out of the egg in which it has cut a hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on top of the eggs after emergence and eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the egg of a wasp coming out of the egg in which it has cut a hole. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note that it is investigating an adult wasp that is coming out of its egg. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) on parasitised eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note that it is investigating an adult wasp that is coming out of its egg. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
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Recognition

Identification of the adult wasps requires expert knowledge. However, the name of the wasp parasitizing some shield bug (Pentatomidae) eggs can usually be determined by the colour of the eggs. The herbivorous shield bugs have relatively pale eggs, and when parasitised by the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid the eggs turn black. When they are parasitised by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, the eggs have a black ring near the top of the egg and just before the wasp emerges, the top of the egg also turns black.

This method of parasitoid wasp identification will not work for the predatory Pentatomidae in New Zealand that lay black eggs. However, when the adult wasps have emerged, it may be possible to recognise the species.

Adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids and Green vegetable bug egg parasitoids have stubby black bodies. The Native shield-bug egg parasitoid adults have dark legs and antennae with a few paler areas. The Adult Green vegetable bug egg parasitoids has pale reddish legs and the basal half of the antennae is also pale with the other half being black. The adults of the third species, Trissolcus maori Johnson, 1991, that parasitizes the eggs of the closely related family, Acanthosomatidae, are smaller than the other two species. Also it has light coloured legs and dark antennae.

  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the dark ring near the top of the eggs shows that they are parasitized the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the dark ring near the top of the eggs shows that they are parasitized the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma robusta parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the black ring and dark top to the eggs, the latter indicating that the eggs are about to hatch.
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma robusta parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the black ring and dark top to the eggs, the latter indicating that the eggs are about to hatch.
  • Adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), that has hatched from eggs of the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the way the wasps have chewed through the top of the eggs. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), that has hatched from eggs of the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note the way the wasps have chewed through the top of the eggs. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
    Two images of adult Native shield-bug egg parasitoids, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae).
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma repens, the dark coloured eggs are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma repens, the dark coloured eggs are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Image: DSIR photographers © Landcare Research
    Image: DSIR photographers © Landcare Research
  • Eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) that are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) that are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) that are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) that are parasitized by a wasp, the Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence from an egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence from an egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of an adult Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence from eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of an adult Green vegetable bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) after emergence from eggs of the Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
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Natural Enemies

No pathogens, parasitoids or predators of the Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei are known in New Zealand. The adults are probably caught by predatory insects, spiders and birds.

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Prey/Host

In New Zealand, the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid has been reared from native shield bugs (Pentatomidae), and three adventive species from Australia. Its hosts include both herbivores and predators (called Soldier bugs).

Table: New Zealand hosts of Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone, (Dodd, 1913) (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), from the Plant-SyNZ database (13 January 2018). The reliability score shows the quality of evidence for the host association (0-10, 10=high quality).
Scientific NameCommon NameClassification Reliability Index Biostatus
Cermatulus nasalis (Woodward, 1837)Brown soldier bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)10native
Cuspicona simplex Walker, 1867Green potato bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)10adventive
Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood, 1837)Brown shield bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)10adventive
Glaucias amyoti (Dallas, 1851)Australasian green shield bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)10native
Monteithiella humeralis (Walker, 1868)Pittosporum shield bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)8adventive
Oechalia schellenbergii (Guerin, 1831)Schellenberg's soldier bug(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)10native
  • Eggs of Green potato bug, Cuspicona simplex (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) with black at the top showing that they have been parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note that some eggs have not been parasitized. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of Green potato bug, Cuspicona simplex (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) with black at the top showing that they have been parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): note that some eggs have not been parasitized. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium, the eggs with a dark ring are parasitized by a wasp of the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma robusta parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the black ring and dark top to the eggs, the latter indicating that the eggs are about to hatch.
    Eggs of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Coprosma robusta parasitized by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the black ring and dark top to the eggs, the latter indicating that the eggs are about to hatch.
  • Eggs the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). There are two pale unparasitised eggs, while the rest have been parasitised by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the distinctive black ring near the top of the eggs. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). There are two pale unparasitised eggs, while the rest have been parasitised by the Native shield-bug egg parasitoid, Trissolcus oenone (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae): note the distinctive black ring near the top of the eggs. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Information Sources

Cumber RA 1964. The egg-parasite complex (Scelionidae: Hymenoptera) of shield bugs (Pentatomidae, Acanthosomidae: Heteroptera) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 7 (4): 536-554.

Johnson NF. 1991. Revision of Austalasian Trissolcus species (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 5: 211-239.

Lariviere M-C, Larochelle A 2004. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand 50: 1-326.

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Other Images

  • A cluster of white eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) laid on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium (Pittosporaceae); the dark colour of the eggs indicates that they may be parasitised. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A cluster of white eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) laid on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium (Pittosporaceae); the dark colour of the eggs indicates that they may be parasitised. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • A parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) investigating unhatched eggs of the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) investigating unhatched eggs of the Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The black ring indicates that they were parasitised. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
    Eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The black ring indicates that they were parasitised. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
  • Eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The black ring indicates that they were parasitised. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
    Eggs of Pittosporum shield bug, Monteithiella humeralis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The black ring indicates that they were parasitised. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
  • Adult wasp, Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), and exit hole in egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult wasp, Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae), and exit hole in egg of the Australasian green shield bug, Glaucias amyoti (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on the underside of a leaf of Pittosporum crassifolium Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Suggested Citation

Martin NA. 2018. Native shield-bug egg parasitoid - Trissolcus oenone. Interesting Insects and other Invertebrates. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 123. http://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/Index.html. Date Accessed. ISSN 1179-643X.

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