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Loxsoma fern whitefly - Trialeurodes species 2

By N A Martin (2018)

Classification

Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Hemiptera
Family:
Aleyrodidae
Scientific Name:
Trialeurodes species 2
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Fourth stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Common Names

Loxsoma fern whitefly
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Synonyms

Trialeurodes sp. 'loxsoma' of NA Martin 2012
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Taxonomic Notes

At present only one species of whitefly living on ferns in New Zealand has been properly described and given a scientific name. This is Trialeurodes asplenii (Maskell 1890), which is found on shining spleenwort Asplenium oblongifolium Colenso (Aspleniaceae). Whiteflies have been found on more than twenty other species of fern. Those that been examined carefully all show distinct differences in appearance and biology from Trialeurodes asplenii indicating that there are many previously unknown species of fern whitefly in New Zealand. They are all in the genus Trialeurodes. Important differences between these species include the presence of absence of pigmentation on the fourth instar (stage) larva and puparium, and the arrangement and appearance of wax filaments around the edge of the fourth instar (stage) larva and puparium and the presence or absence of wax filaments on the dorsal surface of the puparium. Most of these fern whitefly species appear to be found on only one species of fern except the whitefly on two species of Dicksonnia.

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Biostatus and Distribution

This undescribed endemic whitefly was discovered in May 2012 by Dr Robert Hoare when he visited a remnant of native forest in an urban reserve in Auckland City. It has since been found on its fern host plant, Loxsoma cunninghamii R.Br. ex A.Cunn. (Loxsomataceae) in two reserves in Auckland north of the Waitemata harbour and at one site near Thames. Its host plant is restricted to Auckland, Northland, Great barrier island and Coromandel Peninsula.

Conservation status: Probably common on its host plant, which is restricted to Auckland, Northland, Great barrier island and Coromandel Peninsula.

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Life Stages and Annual Cycle

Diagramme of the life cycle of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). (based on figure 20 from Crop & Food Research Broadsheet 91. Image: Based on figure 20 from Crop & Food Research Broadsheet 91 © Plant & Food Research
Diagramme of the life cycle of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). (based on figure 20 from Crop & Food Research Broadsheet 91. Image: Based on figure 20 from Crop & Food Research Broadsheet 91 © Plant & Food Research

There appears to be one generation per year. Adults are seen from spring to early summer. Larvae are present from summer to winter and puparia are present in late winter and spring.

Loxsoma fern whitefly has the same life stages and lifecycle as the Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The adult whitefly is covered with white wax some of which may come off on to plants on which it is feeding. The adults are about 1.5 mm long with a wing span of about 3 mm. When the adults emerge from the puparium the white body colour can be seen and wings are transparent, but are soon the body and wings are covered with white wax. Adult males may be seen sitting alongside females prior to mating.

Eggs and Larvae
Adult females lay eggs on the underside of young fronds. Eggs are spread out on the underside of the frond. The elongate, oval eggs are laid on their side with a peg at one end that is inserted into the leaf. They are tiny and a pale tan colour and shiny. The first larva to hatch from the egg has three pairs of legs and is usually called a crawler. It walks away from the egg and settles in a suitable feeding site, usually above or close to a leaf vein with phloem ducts (tubes that transmit nutrients from the leaf to other parts of the plant). The crawler is oval and flat. There are four larval stages. The larvae grow by moulting, changing skin. The old skin splits on the upper, dorsal, side and the next larval stage pulls itself out and settles in the same place to feed. All larvae are transparent with a short wax fringe around second and third instar (stages) larvae and a long wax fringe around the fourth instar larva.

Pupa
When the fourth stage, instar, larva reaches full size it has vertical sides similar to that of greenhouse whitefly (see life cycle drawing). The mature whitefly larva forms a pupa inside the larval skin, which is now called a puparium. When the adult is almost ready to emerge, dark eyespots can be seen through the walls of the puparium. A T-shaped split occurs in the skin of the puparium and the adult pulls itself out. Its body and wings harden, and become covered in white wax.

Feeding and Honeydew
Whitefly adults and larvae have piercing and sucking mouth parts. The long stylets, special shaped rods, are held in the rostrum. When it wishes to feed the whitefly moves the tip of the rostrum onto the surface of the fern frond. The stylets are then gradually pushed into the plant and manoeuvred into the phloem, nutrient transport vessels of the plant. They suck the plant sap. Plant sap is high in sugars and low in other nutrients. Whitefly excrete the excess sugary liquid that is called Honeydew. In the larvae the excess liquid is excreted into the vasiform orifice where it forms a droplet. When a droplet has formed, a tongue-like structure called the lingula flicks the droplet away from the larva. It can be flicked up to 2 centimetres away.

Honeydew makes the plant leaves sticky. Sometimes black ‘sooty mould’ fungi grow on the sticky surfaces.

  • Two adults, probably male and female, of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the underside of a young frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
    Two adults, probably male and female, of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the underside of a young frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two oval eggs. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two oval eggs. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Eggs and first stage (instar) larva (crawler) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Eggs and first stage (instar) larva (crawler) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • First stage (instar) larva (crawler) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note two eye spots. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    First stage (instar) larva (crawler) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note two eye spots. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  •  Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Third and fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva and the narrow white fringe of the third instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Third and fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva and the narrow white fringe of the third instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the fourth instar larva. Image: Birgit E Rhode © Landcare Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the fourth instar larva. Image: Birgit E Rhode © Landcare Research
  • Fourth stage (instar) larva and skin of a second instar larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larva and skin of a second instar larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Fourth stage (instar) larva and skins of early instars of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larva and skins of early instars of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two upper puparia have hatched and the unhatched puparium has eye spots of the developing adult. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two upper puparia have hatched and the unhatched puparium has eye spots of the developing adult. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Recently emerged adult and empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the transparent witngs and white body. Photograph by Minna Pesonen, copyright Plant & Food Research Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Recently emerged adult and empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the transparent witngs and white body. Photograph by Minna Pesonen, copyright Plant & Food Research Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Scanning electron micrograph of the vasiform orifice and lingula of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). White scale bar = 0.1 mm. Image: Paul Sutherland © Plant & Food Research
    Scanning electron micrograph of the vasiform orifice and lingula of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). White scale bar = 0.1 mm. Image: Paul Sutherland © Plant & Food Research
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Recognition

Loxsoma fern whitefly is the only species that breeds on this species of fern. The whitefly can be recognised by the presence the distinctive fourth stage larvae and puparia on the underside of fronds of the fern. Similarly, the presence of the white adults with their clean outline on their host plant enable the recognition of the presence of the species. Eggs and young larvae can be seen using a 10x hand lens (magnifying glass). Often a trace of white wax on the underside of a young fern frond gives away their presence. The fourth instar (stage) larva and the puparium have a dense fringe of long white wax filaments that remains horizontal in the puparium or point slightly downwards.

  • Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of a mature frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
    Underside of a mature frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
  • Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the white wax on the fern frond and the egg. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the white wax on the fern frond and the egg. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Fourth stage (instar) larvae (right) and puparium (left) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva and puparium. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larvae (right) and puparium (left) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the thick white wax fringe on the fourth instar larva and puparium. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
  • Puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the puparium. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
    Puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the puparium. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
  • Puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), end on view to show the vertical wall of the puparium and the horozontal dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the puparium Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
    Puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), end on view to show the vertical wall of the puparium and the horozontal dense fringe of long white wax filaments on the puparium Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Landcare Research
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Natural Enemies

No predators of the loxsoma fern whitefly have been found. Some species of lacewings and ladybirds are known to feed on whitefly. It is also likely that spiders and other generalist insect predators feed on adult and juvenile whiteflies.

Pathogens
A pink fungal pathogen was found at one site. Several fungal pathogens are known to infest juvenile whitefly.

Parasitoid
A tiny orange wasp (Hymenoptera) parasitoid was reared from parasitised puparia collected from one site. The female parasitoid lays an egg in young whitefly larvae. The whitefly larva grows to full size when the wasp larva kills it. When the wasp larva is fully grown it pupates in the skin, puparium, of the whitefly larvae. The black colour of the wasp pupa shows through whitefly puparium. The adult wasp chews a hole through the puparium.

  • Fourth stage (instar) larva and diseased larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fourth stage (instar) larva and diseased larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Fungal infection of larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fungal infection of larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Fungal infection of larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Fungal infection of larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the underside of an old frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae): note the one on the left is infected by a pink fungus. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the underside of an old frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae): note the one on the left is infected by a pink fungus. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera) causing dark puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera) causing dark puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera) causing dark puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera) causing dark puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Two views of puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the one on the left has dark pigment round edge. It also has a hole on its top made by the adult parasitic wasp when it chewed its way out Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Two views of puparia of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the one on the left has dark pigment round edge. It also has a hole on its top made by the adult parasitic wasp when it chewed its way out Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside (left) and upper side (right) of an adult wasp parasite (Hymenoptera) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside (left) and upper side (right) of an adult wasp parasite (Hymenoptera) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Two views of the underside of a tiny wasp parasite (Hymenoptera) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Two views of the underside of a tiny wasp parasite (Hymenoptera) of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Host Plants

The loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 only breeds on its fern host plant, Loxsoma cunninghamii R.Br. ex A.Cunn. (Loxsomataceae).

Feeding and honeydew
Adult and juvenile whitefly feed by inserting their stylets into the phloem, nutrient transport vessels of the plant. They suck the plant sap. On some species of plant very high numbers of whitefly can occur their feeding can debilitate the plant. Plant sap is high in sugars and low in other nutrients. Whiteflies excrete the excess sugary liquid which is called Honeydew. This makes the plant leaves sticky. Sometimes black ’sooty mould’ fungi grow on the sticky surfaces.

  • Young fronds of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
    Young fronds of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
  • Underside of a mature frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
    Underside of a mature frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Nicholas A. Martin
  • Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of frond of Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae) showing the distinctive sporangia. Healthy and diseased fourth stage (instar) larvae of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are present. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
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Control

Sometimes high numbers of loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2, may be found on its host plant. This is quite normal and does not require intervention.

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Information Sources

Martin NA 1999. Whitefly: Biology, identification and life cycle. Crop & Food Research, Broadsheet No. 91: 1-8.

Martin NA. 2013. Tales of two discoveries. The Weta. 44: 13-19.

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Acknowledgements

The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research) for permission to use photographs.

Landcare Research New Zealand Limited (Landcare Research) for permission to use photographs.

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Other Images

  • Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Second stage (instar) larva of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the narrow white wax fringe. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Recently emerged adult and empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the transparent witngs and white body. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Recently emerged adult and empty puparium of Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the transparent witngs and white body. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the white wax on the fern frond and the egg. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the white wax on the fern frond and the egg. Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two eggs (left). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Loxsoma fern whitefly, Trialeurodes species 2 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Loxsoma cunninghamii (Loxsomataceae), note the two eggs (left). Image: Minna Personen © Plant & Food Research
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Suggested Citation

Martin NA. 2018. Loxsoma fern whitefly - Trialeurodes species 2. Interesting Insects and other Invertebrates. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 144. http://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/Index.html. Date Accessed. ISSN 1179-643X.

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