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Pseudopanax leafminer weevil - Pactola species 1

By N A Martin (2017)

Classification

Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Coleoptera
Superfamily:
Curculionoidea
Family:
Curculionidae
Subfamily:
Curculioninae
Tribe:
Eugnomini
Scientific Name:
Pactola species 1
  • Adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), about 5–6 mm long.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), about 5–6 mm long. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Two blotch mines in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Two blotch mines in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
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Common Names

Pseudopanax leafminer weevil
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Synonyms

Pseudopanax blotch mine sp. 'lessonii' of Martin 1999
Pactola sp. 'lessonii' of Martin & Kuschel 2010

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Biostatus and Distribution

This endemic weevil has only been found in three places, all in the Auckland region. On one West Coast Auckland beach, leaf mines are regularly seen on host plant trees, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae), and adult weevils were reared from this site. Leaf mines were found twice at an Auckland reserve of a coastal forest remnant in an urban suburb. Leaf mines were found once at a third site near Leigh. While the endemic host plant is common, this insect is very rare.

Conservation status: Very rare. One locality has a large breeding population; a second locality has a smaller breeding population, and at a third locality the weevil was detected only once.

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Life Stages and Annual Cycle

Larvae have been found in all seasons and adults reared from larvae collected in several months throughout the year. It is presumed that there are several generations per year. The generations do not appear to be synchronised.

Adults are typical weevils, each with six legs, hard wing covers (elytra) and a long snout (rostrum). They are small, about 5-6 mm long and mottled brown. Colour is variable, but is generally mottled grey/brown. Their wings, which are longer than the wing covers, are kept safely folded up under the wing covers, except when needed for flying. A pair of jaws, or mandibles, is at the end of the rostrum and on either side of the mouth. The antennae are also attached near the tip of the rostrum and the terminal segments form a club. The body is knobbly and cryptically coloured. They probably hide by day on tree bark. The weevil is covered by short flat setae (hairs). The hind legs have a prominent enlarged segment (femur) with a spur. The next segment (tibia) is thin and curved.

After they emerge from the pupal chambers, adult males and females are assumed to find one another and mate. They also locate suitable food plants and egg laying sites. The adults are believed to feed at night and hide during the day.

Eggs and larvae
Female weevils lay eggs in mature leaves. Usually a single egg is laid in a leaflet. After hatching from an egg, the larva tunnels into the leaf, forming a blotch mine, which may be compact or elongated.

Larvae are whitish, with no legs and a brown head capsule. Larvae have large jaws at the front of the head. As a larva grows, it changes skins (moults). There are probably three larval stages (instars) like other weevils. Larval development usually takes many weeks.

Pupa
When it is fully grown, the larva makes a cell (chamber) out of black insect faeces (frass) in its mine. The larva changes into a pupa in the cell. The pupa is white with all the appendages of the adult weevil visible - long legs, snout (rostrum), wings and wing cases. If the chamber is opened, the pupa waves its abdomen about. On emergence from the pupal skin, the adult weevil stays in the pupal chamber until its skin (cuticle) hardens and darkens. After leaving the pupal chamber, it is assumed that males and females find each other and mate.

Feeding
Both adult and larval weevils have chewing mouth parts. The jaws (mandibles) of the adult are at the tip of the rostrum. The adult feeds on host plant leaves, especially on the soft tissue exposed when the leaf stalk is broken.

The larva also has jaws (mandibles) at the front of its head. It uses them to create a tunnel (mine) in the leaf. It ingests the internal tissue of the leaf and leaves the upper and lower skins (epidermis) of the leaf intact. Weevil larvae will continue feeding in leaf tissue after the leaf has died. The digested leaf tissue is excreted as discrete pellets (frass) that back-fill the mine.

  • Top view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Top view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); note the large segment on the hind legs with a spur.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); note the large segment on the hind legs with a spur. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Side view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Side view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Side view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Side view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • A pale adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A pale adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after emergence from its cell.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), after emergence from its cell. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • A larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell prior to pupation.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell prior to pupation. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Pupa of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Pupa of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • An adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with large white patch.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    An adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with large white patch. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Recognition

There are many kinds of small weevils in New Zealand. They can only be conclusively identified by an expert. The Pseudopanax leafminer belongs to the subfamily Curculioninae and tribe Eugnomini. Weevils in the genus Pactola have a knobbly appearance, short flat body seta (hairs), an enlarged segment (femur) on each hind leg followed by a narrow, curved segment (tibia). Other weevils in the genus are stem and bark borers in Pseudopanax species.

The leaf mines are distinctive and can be used to determine the presence of the weevil in an area. The Pseudopanax leafminer weevil is one of three insects that form leaf mines in its host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii. The weevil mines can easily be distinguished from the mines made by two species of moth. The weevil mines are in the form of irregular blotches that show on both sides of a leaf, whereas the moth mines are serpentine. The lancewood leafminer, 'Acrocercops' panacivagans (Watt 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) forms a distinctive and easy to see narrow serpentine mine on the upper side of leaves. The mine formed by 'Acrocercops' panacitorsens (Watt, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is usually on the underside of the leaf and tends to be wider and transparent.

The weevil blotch mines can be confused with two other forms of leaf damage, dead areas and ‘windows’. When held up to the light, dead areas look dark, whereas mines show up as pale areas. ‘Windows’, where one side of a leaf has been chewed leaving one skin (epidermis) intact, can be distinguished from a mine that has two intact skins (epidermal layers).

  • Adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), about 5–6 mm long.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), about 5–6 mm long. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Top view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Top view of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of an adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • A pale adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A pale adult Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Both sides of a blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), upper side of leaf (left), underside of leaf (right).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Both sides of a blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), upper side of leaf (left), underside of leaf (right). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Serpentine leaf mine in upper side of leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) formed by larva of the lancewood leafminer, 'Acrocercops' panacivagans (Watt, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Serpentine leaf mine in upper side of leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) formed by larva of the lancewood leafminer, 'Acrocercops' panacivagans (Watt, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Serpentine leaf mine in underside of leaf of Pseudopanax arborea (Araliaceae) formed by larva of the Pseudopanax tortuous leafminer, 'Acrocercops' panacitorsens (Watt, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Serpentine leaf mine in underside of leaf of Pseudopanax arborea (Araliaceae) formed by larva of the Pseudopanax tortuous leafminer, 'Acrocercops' panacitorsens (Watt, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
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Natural Enemies

An unnamed wasp parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) kills weevil larvae after they have formed a pupation cell. The white wasp larva makes a brown silk lined cocoon in which it pupates. The adult wasp emerges in the cocoon and when its skin (cuticle) has hardened it chews its way through the cocoon and the epidermis of the leaf mine.

No observations of predation of adult weevils have been reported, but they are probably preyed on by birds, spiders and predatory insects.

  • White larva of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae); parasitoid larva dissected from the weevil larval cell.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    White larva of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae); parasitoid larva dissected from the weevil larval cell. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Note the weevil larva head capsule by the wasp cocoon.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Note the weevil larva head capsule by the wasp cocoon. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Silhouette of pupa parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) in its cocoon. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Silhouette of pupa parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) in its cocoon. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Silhouette of pupa parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) in its cocoon. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Silhouette of pupa parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) in its cocoon. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Exit hole of adult parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) from its cocoon in the leaf mine. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Exit hole of adult parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) from its cocoon in the leaf mine. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Dead female (left) and male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead female (left) and male parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Host Plants

The Pseudopanax leafminer weevil lives in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (DC.) K. Koch (Araliaceae). A blotch mine was seen once in lancewood, Pseudopanax crassifolius (Sol. ex A. Cunn.) K. Kocha, a closely related species, but it is not certain if it was caused by a weevil, though lancewood could be a host plant of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil.

Plant damage
The adult weevils feed on leaves, especially the soft tissue exposed at the broken end of a leaf stalk. Larvae burrow through leaves forming blotch mines that vary in shape and position on the leaf. The larva chews the internal tissues of the leaf and the upper and lower skins of the leaf are left intact. Weevil larvae will feed in leaves after that part of the leaf has died. The digested leaf tissue is excreted as discrete pellets (frass) that back-fill the mine.

  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Blotch leaf mine in leaf of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) made by larvae of Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
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Information Sources

Dr Willy Kuschel, who identified the adult weevils and provided information about the genus Pactola.

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Acknowledgements

Dr Willy Kuschel for identification of the adult weevils.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research) for permission to use photographs.

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Other Images

  • A larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) exposed in its leaf mine. It may be forming its pupation cell.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    A larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) exposed in its leaf mine. It may be forming its pupation cell. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell prior to pupation.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Larva of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell prior to pupation. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in its cell before emergence. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Adult of the Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves.  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Female parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in host plant, Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae) leaves. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of a parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) that kill Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chamber in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Exit hole of adult parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) from its cocoon in the leaf mine. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae).  Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Exit hole of adult parasitoid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Blacinae) from its cocoon in the leaf mine. The parasitoid kills Pseudopanax leafminer weevil, Pactola species 1 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), larvae in their pupal chambers in leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii (Araliaceae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Suggested Citation

Martin NA. 2017. Pseudopanax leafminer weevil - Pactola species 1. Interesting Insects and other Invertebrates. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 98. http://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/Index.html. Date Accessed. ISSN 1179-643X.

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