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Planthopper parasitoid - Dryinus koebelei

By N A Martin (2017)

Classification

Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Hymenoptera
Superfamily:
Chrysidoidea
Family:
Dryinidae
Scientific Name:
Dryinus koebelei (Perkins, 1905)
  • Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Common Names

Planthopper parasitoid
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Synonyms

Paradryinus koebelei Perkins, 1905
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Biostatus and Distribution

In New Zealand this adventive wasp is an ectoparasitoid of two species of Australian plant hoppers in the family Flatidae. The wasp larva is usually attached under one of the planthopper nymph’s wing buds. Probably throughout New Zealand where its hosts are present.

Conservation status: An Australian parasitoid of Australian planthoppers.

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Life Stages and Annual Cycle

In New Zealand, the only known hosts of this wasp are nymphs of the two Australian species of plant hoppers in the family Flatidae. Adult wasps have been found from December to May while larvae have been found on plant hopper nymphs from December to April. There are probably several overlapping generations per year.

The adult wasps body is about 5 mm long. The females and males quite different in appearance. Both are dark brown to black, but the female has dark wings with pale bands.

The larva is an ectoparasite on the plant hopper. It is attached under one of the wing buds. The swollen dark brown body protrudes from under the wing bud.

The mature wasp larva moults leaving its old skin attached to the skin of the dead plant hopper nymph. The wasp larva then spins a loose cocoon. Within this it makes a denser cocoon in which it pupates. The adult emerges from the pupa in the cocoon. When its body has hardened and its wings dried it chews a hole in the cocoon through which it emerges.

  • Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Side view of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae): note the shape of the abdomen. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Side view of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae): note the shape of the abdomen. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Side view of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Side view of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Upper side of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Upper side of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of an adult male Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Underside of a nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Underside of a nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymphal of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with skin of a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) after the parasitoid larva has left to spin its cocoon. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymphal of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with skin of a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) after the parasitoid larva has left to spin its cocoon. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymphal of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with skin of a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) after the parasitoid larva has left to spin its cocoon. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymphal of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with skin of a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) after the parasitoid larva has left to spin its cocoon. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Skin of a dead nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), after larva of the Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) has left its host. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Skin of a dead nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), after larva of the Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) has left its host. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) with exit hole made by adult wasp Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) with exit hole made by adult wasp Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) with exit hole made by adult wasp. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) with exit hole made by adult wasp. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Recognition

Adults of the Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) require expert knowledge of Hymenoptera for their identification, but the larvae can be identified on their hosts, nymphs of the Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta and the Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae).

  • Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Dead adult female Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Natural Enemies

No pathogens, parasitoids or predators of the Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei are known in New Zealand. The adults are probably caught by predatory insects, spiders and birds.

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Prey/Host

In Australia this parasitoids hosts of Dryinus koebelei are in the family Flatidae. In New Zealand the parasitoid has been found on both Australian species of Flatididae that are present. The parasitoid larva is attached under one of the planthopper’s wing buds. When the wasp larva is fully grown it leaves the planthopper and spins an elongated cocoon.

Table: New Zealand hosts of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei, (Perkins, 1905) (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), from the Plant-SyNZ database (15 September 2017). The reliability score shows the quality of evidence for the host association (0-10, 10=high quality).
Scientific NameCommon NameClassification Reliability Index Biostatus
Anzora unicolor (Walker, 1862)Grey planthopper(Hemiptera: Flatidae)10adventive
Siphanta acuta (Walker, 1851)Green planthopper(Hemiptera: Flatidae)10adventive
  • Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Green planthopper, Siphanta acuta (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Nicholas A. Martin © Plant & Food Research
  • Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Nymph of Grey planthopper, Anzora unicolor (Flatidae), with a larva of the ectoparasitoid Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae) that has its head inserted under the planthoppers wing bud. Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
  • Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
    Cocoon of Planthopper parasitoid, Dryinus koebelei (Dryinidae). Image: Tim Holmes © Plant & Food Research
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Information Sources

Olmi M. 2007. New Zealand Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chryidoidea): new records and description of Bocchus thorpei new species. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 44: 5-16.

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Acknowledgements

The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (Plant & Food Research) for permission to use photographs.

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Suggested Citation

Martin NA. 2017. Planthopper parasitoid - Dryinus koebelei. Interesting Insects and other Invertebrates. New Zealand Arthropod Factsheet Series Number 107. http://nzacfactsheets.landcareresearch.co.nz/Index.html. Date Accessed. ISSN 1179-643X.

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